Both the iPhone 11 Pro and Samsung Galaxy S10 have three rear-facing camera lenses, one of which allows the phones to capture ultra-wide images with a noticeably larger field of view than was previously possible.
But there's a difference between Apple and Samsung's ultra-wide-angle cameras. Samsung's offers a 123-degree field of view, while Apple's is slightly narrower at 120 degrees. The Galaxy S10's ultra-wide-angle camera also has a 16-megapixel sensor, while the iPhone's is 12 megapixels. Samsung's ultra-wide-angle camera has a lower aperture than Apple's too, which means the lens should be able to open wider to absorb more light and therefore provide more exposure.
Samsung's telephoto and wide-angle cameras are also 12 megapixels just like Apple's, but as is the case with the ultra-wide-angle lens, there are some differences to take into account when it comes to aperture. The iPhone's wide-angle lens has a f/1.8 aperture, while Samsung's is capable of switching between an aperture of f/1.5, which would be lower than the iPhone's, and f/2.4. Apple's telephoto lens, however, has a lower aperture of f/2.0 compared to the Galaxy S10's, which has an aperture of f/2.4.
When it comes to recording video, both the iPhone 11 Pro and Galaxy S10 share many similarities. Both phones can shoot 4K video up to 60 frames per second and slow-motion video in 1080p at up to 240 frames per second.
Based on their specifications, it sounds like the iPhone 11 Pro could give the Galaxy S10 some serious competition, but there's no way to know without comparing their performance side-by-side.